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/*           LEX.cpp       */

# include <iostream.h>
# include <conio.h>
# include <fstream.h>
# include <ctype.h>                       //header files
# include <dos.h>
# include <stdlib.h>
# include <stdio.h>
# include <string.h>

# define MAX 50
# define ERROR 0
# define ID 1
# define KEY 2
# define DELIM 3
# define OP 4                         //constant declarations
# define DATA_TYPE 0
# define OPER 2
# define KWORD 4
# define RTYPE 5
# define NUM 6

int bcount=0;


char *msg2[]={"data type","identifier","operator","special
character","keyword","return type","number"};

char buff[MAX],spl[]={' ',',',';','

char *data[]={"int","char","float","long","unsigned","void"};

char oper[]={'+','-','*','/','%','=','|','^','<','>','<=','>=','<>'};

char keys[4][10]={{"begin"},{"end"},{"start"},{"int"}},row[2],col[2];


 void display(int symcount);              
 //display function for symbol table

 int flush_buff(char buff[MAX])

     for(int i=0;buff[i]!='

Free C Related Resources on web

Free C / C++ Libraries, Source Code and Frameworks

Here are some C and C++ libraries, DLLs, VCLs, source code, components, modules, application frameworks, class libraries, source code snippets, and the like, that you can use with your programs without payment of fees and royalties. Note that some libraries (etc) listed here may have certain restrictions about its use and/or distribution. Be sure you read the licence conditions in each package before using them.

A few types of libraries have been moved to their own pages, due to the large number of items in those categories. Here are some of the other pages containing free libraries on this site:


The information provided on this page comes without any warranty whatsoever. Use it at your own risk. Just because a program, book, document or service is listed here or has a good review does not mean that I endorse or approve of the program or of any of its contents. All the other standard disclaimers also apply.

Free Edit Controls, Libraries and Source Code

Note: if you are looking for WYSIWYG web editors that you can embed into your web page, you should check the Free Online Web-Based WYSIWYG HTML Editor JavaScripts page instead.

SynEdit Multi-line Edit Control

SynEdit is a multi-line edit control that you can use in your Delphi and Borland C++ Builder programs. Features include syntax highlighting for a variety of programming languages and a macro recorder. This is a VCL control that comes with source code.

Scintilla Edit Control

Ever wanted to create your own syntax-highlighting editor? Scintilla is a source code edit control, similar in concept to Microsoft's RichEdit control, that supports things like syntax highlighting, code completion and call tips. It also supports things like the use of proportional fonts, bold, italics, multiple foreground and background colours, and multiple fonts. The source code is available free, and the licence allows you to use the control in any project, free or commercial. You may also want to check out the Free Spell Checker Libraries, Source Code, Controls, Components to avoid reinventing the wheel.

Free C/C++ Font Libraries

T1Lib - Adobe Type 1 Fonts Library

If you want your applications to support Adobe Type 1 fonts, this rasterizing library might be just what you need. It requires a Unix system. It is implemented independently of X11, so it might be the solution for those of you who don't want to use the Type 1 rasterizer provided with X11R5 and later. The source code for the package has a filename like t1lib-*.tar.gz (where * is replaced by the version number). Latest: There is a Windows port of t1lib available as well.


Heard of True Type? Well, now you can include True Type support in your programs on systems that do not have True Type support by default. Linux and other OSes are supported.

Free Standard Template Libraries (C++ STL Libraries)

STLport (STL Library)

This version of STL (Standard Template Library for C++) is available free of charge from their website. It is apparently also shipped with the current versions of the Borland / Turbo C++ compilers.

SGI Standard Template Library (STL)

If your compiler does not have a recent Standard Template Library implementation, you might want to consider this version available free from SGI.

Free C/C++ Thread Libraries

LinuxThreads Library

The LinuxThreads library implements Posix 1003.1c threads on (as the name reveals) Linux. It provides kernel-level threads where scheduling is handled by the Linux kernel. Thus, unlike user-level thread packages, it can take advantage of multiprocessors.

FSU Pthreads (POSIX Threads)

This C library implements POSIX threads on a variety of operating systems, including Linux, FreeBSD, SCO Unix, Solaris, SunOS and DOS.


QpThread is a C++ framework for threads and Unix signals that operates on top of POSIX threads. It supports deferred cancellation (through C++ exceptions), timers, thread pools, etc.

Other Free C/C++ Libraries

Intel Threading Building Blocks for Open Source New

The Intel Threading Building Blocks, or TBB, is a C++ threading library that abstracts platform details and threading mechanisms for your multi-threaded programs. Since it abstracts many details of thread management, it helps to reduce application complexity. The task manager handles load balancing among the processors, after automatically choosing the optimal number of processes for the system. The library is released under the GNU GPL version 2 with the runtime exception. Supported systems include Linux, Windows and Mac OS X.

Open Source Computer Vision Library (Intel)

This library is a collection of algorithms and sample code aimed at handling real time computer vision. This includes Human-Computer Interaction (HCI), object identification, segmentation and recognition, face recognition, gesture recognition, motion tracking, ego motion, motion understanding, Structure Form Motion (SFM) and mobile robotics. It includes applications like a colour tracker, face tracker, condensation filter tracker, Matlab camera calibration toolbox tutorial, automatic camera calibration filter, face recognition using embedded HMMs, Kalman filter tracker, Lucas-Kanade optical flow in an image pyramid, etc. The library utilises the Intel Integrated Performance Primitives. Supported platforms include Windows, all POSIX systems including Linux, BSD (etc), OS X, etc.

IBM ICU: International Components for Unicode

ICU, or the International Components for Unicode, comprises C/C++ and Java libraries for Unicode support, internationalisation and globalisation (i8n/g11n). It supports Unicode text handling, full character properties and character set conversions, with more than 500 codepages, Unicode regular expressions, language sensitive collation and searching, normalisation (normalization), upper/lowercase, script transliterations, more than 230 locale data, multi-calendar and time zones, formatting of dates, times, numbers, currencies, messages, etc. If you are writing an application that requires internationalization and globalization support, and are working with Unicode, this is something that you should check out. It is licensed under the X License (an open source licence). Platforms supported include Windows, Linux, AIX, HP-UX, Solaris, etc.

Boost C++ Libraries

This site is a source of "free peer-reviewed portable C++ source libraries" (quoted from the site). There are numerous libraries available, including libraries for managing date and time, filesystems, iterators, random numbers, regex, tests, strings, text processing, containers, math and numerics, data structures, memory, parsing, concurrent programming, algorithms, etc.


STLSoft is a collection of templates in header form that contain numerous classes and functions for Windows and Unix systems. Included in this library are ATLSTL (for creating COM components with the Active Template Library), COMSTL (allows the manipulation of the Component Object Model interfaces and API), .netSTL (applies STL techniques to the .NET framework), InetSTL (applies the STL techniques to the Internet APIs), MFCSTL (allows the manipulation of the Microsoft Foundation Classes or MFC), UNIXSTL (library for programming Unix-type systems), and WinSTL (allows you to program using the Windows API). The library comes with documentation and works with numerous compilers including Borland C++, Comeau C/C++, Digital Mars C/C++, GNU gcc, Intel C/C++, Metrowerks Codewarrior, Microsoft Visual C++, and OpenWatcom. As of version 1.8.1, STLSoft is licensed under the BSD license.


libunicows allows you to write programs that use Unicode on Windows 9x/ME with a compiler other than Microsoft Visual C++ (the Microsoft unicows library requires Visual C++). This library supports (at the time I write this) MinGW, Visual C++ 6, Borland C++, and the Watcom (and OpenWatcom) C/C++ compiler. It comes with source code released under the MIT licence.


OSLib is a C library for programmers writing system software (whether it be embedded software or even entire operating system kernels). It comprises 4 libraries (the extender library, the standard C library, the math library and the kernel library).

MIT Exokernel Operating System

The MIT Exokernel Operating System attempts to provide a level of abstraction of hardware so that you can concentrate on the other aspects of implementing an operating system. It may be useful to those of you planning to write an operating system.

The OSKit Project (Flux)

The OSKit Project is a C framework of 34 components providing a wide variety of facilities that is useful for people planning to write operating system kernels, servers, boot loaders, embedded applications and the like. The function libraries provide numerous facilities, including some common C library services (string, memory, printf, etc), default handlers for traps and interrupts, kernel support functions such as those that set up and manipulate page tables (etc), support for multiprocessor systems, POSIX emulation system call libraries, memory management, threads, synchronization, scheduling, debugging aids, hard disk handling, file system implementations, device driver implementations (SCSI, IDE, network drivers), video driver implementations, etc. The portions of OSKit that contain machine-dependent code currently supports Intel x86 and Digital DNARD (StrongArm SA-110 CPU).


regex is a regular expression parser that is released into the public domain (or so the site says). It is useful if you want to write a program using regular expressions but don't want to use the GPL ones that come from the Free Software Foundation. (The package is somewhere in the middle of the page linked to; just scroll down to find it.)


glob is a parser to handle wildcards (similar to the way that Unix shells parse wildcards). It is released into the public domain (or so the site says). It is useful if you want to write a program with globbing facility but don't want to use the GPL ones that come from the Free Software Foundation. (The package is somewhere in the middle of the page linked to; just scroll down to find it.)

libsigc++ Callback Framework for C++

libsigc++ has C++ classes that provide you a typesafe callback system. You can define signals and assign callback functions to those signals. It is licensed under the GNU Library General Public License (LGPL). It works on platforms with a standards-compliant C++ compiler, such as those with gcc (see the Free C/C++ Compilers page for gcc). A port for Microsoft Visual C++(which does not implement partial specializating) has also been integrated into the distribution, so the library should also work with that compiler.

The Standard Function Library

The Standard Function Library, or SFL, contains routines for compression, encryption, encoding, data type conversion, data output formatting, process control, dates, times, calendars, symbol tables, linked lists, configuration files, error message files, string manipulation, searching, Internet socket access, MIME, CGI, SMTP, batch programming, debug tracing, directory access, environment access, etc. It is designed with portability in mind. The library is written in ANSI C and is supported on MSDOS, Windows, OS/2, Linux, AIX, SunOS, HP/UX, Solaris, NetBSD, FreeBSD, SCO OpenServer, Digital Unix, and OpenVMS. The source code is also available.

HTML Tidy Library Project

HTML Tidy is an HTML validation library that comes with source code. It allows you to embed HTML validation facilities into your application, which may come in handy if you are writing your own editor. (You may also be interested in the Free Spell Checker Libraries, Source Code, Controls, Components to avoid reinventing the wheel.)

Views - C++ Standard Template Library Extension

Views extends STL to include domain views, which allows you to simplify your code when you work with containers.

GNU Lightning

GNU Lightning is a library of routines that allows programs to generate assembly language code at runtime. It abstracts the target CPU, exposing your program to a standardized RISC instruction set. The library is supposed to be fast, thus making it useful if you're developing a Just-In-Time compiler.

TurboPower Async Professional

If you need to add speech to your programs, or enable it to process speech input, TurboPower's Async Professional provides you an easy access to Microsoft's Speech API (SAPI) allowing you to integrate voice/speech recognition and speech synthesis in your programs. It also handles the sending and receiving (as well as viewing and printing) of faxes (and converts BMP, DCX, PCX and TIF files automatically), alphanumeric and text (GSM/SMS) paging, high speed file transfers (including the major file transfer protocols like Zmodem and FTP), IP telephony (audio and video, Voice Over IP or VOIP), Internet communications (Winsock access), supports ISDN modems, RS-232 and RS-485 standards, and includes an XML-based modem database. And so on. Like most of the TurboPower tools, this open source toolkit may be used with Delphi and Borland C++ Builder and ActiveX environments like Microsoft Visual C++ and Visual Basic. If you use Borland Kylix on Linux, a Pascal and Delphi-like compiler, you might want to try the TurboPower Async Professional CLX version.

TurboPower SysTools

TurboPower SysTools contain numerous utility functions and classes for Borland Delphi and Borland C++ Builder as well as programming environments that support COM objects (like Microsoft Visual Basic, Microsoft Visual C++. Among the routines included in this library are string manipulation routines, date and time math routines, high-speed sorting, high-precision maths, runtime math expression analyzer, Microsoft Excel-like finance and statistical routines, email attachment MIME encoding and decoding, reusable containers (stacks, queues, trees, deques, hash tables), CRC data integrity checking, 1 dimensional and 2 dimensional (1-D and 2-D) bar codes, money routines, logging classes, patterns, random number distributions, text data manipulation and more. SysTools is open source, released by TurboPower under the Mozilla Public License. It works on Windows systems. There is also a version of TurboPower SysTools for Kylix.

TurboPower Orpheus

TurboPower Orpheus contains over 120 VCL components such as data entry components, data entry validators, grid for presenting and editing 2 column information, status bars, progress bars, button and tab styles, reports, countdown and elapsed timer components, etc. Orpheus is open source, and may be used with development tools that support VCL such as Borland Delphi and C++Builder.

TurboPower ShellShock

ShellShock contains native VCL components that allow your application to integrate with the Windows shell and Windows explorer. Included in this package are tree views, list views, combo boxes, enumeration of folder contents, monitoring of shell events, file operations (copy, delete, move, rename, together with Windows shell animations), drag and drop support, Windows shortcut creation and inspection, customization of common dialog boxes, minimization to the system tray, etc. You need to use a development tool that supports VCL such as Borland C++Builder and Delphi to use this toolkit. ShellShock comes with source code.

TurboPower OnGuard

If you need to create demo versions of your programs, you might want to check out TurboPower's OnGuard library. The library provides you the ability to create applications that are time-limited, feature-limited, limited to a certain number of uses, limited to a certain number of concurrent network users, etc. Written in Object Pascal, it may be used in Windows development using tools like Borland C++Builder or Delphi.

TurboPower Essentials

TurboPower Essentials has 13 open source native VCL components that provides drop-down calendars and calculators, roll-up dialog boxes, 3-D labels, tiled backgrounds, scrolling messages, menu buttons, etc. You need to use a development tool that supports VCL such as Borland C++Builder and Delphi to use this toolkit.

TurboPower Visual PlanIt

Add time, task and contact management to your applications with Visual PlanIt's synchronized data-aware VCL components. You can create mult-column Outlook style contact grids; day, week, month event views, Outlook style task lists, connect-and-go database connectivity, printing, etc. The components are compatible with Delphi and C++Builder (and presumably any other development system that supports VCL components).


GetPot, an anagram of the ubiquitous getopt, allows programs to parse command lines and simple input files by simply including the header file for the library (the entire library is apparently in the header file). C++, Java, Ruby and Python versions are currently available. The library is distributed under the GNU LGPL.


MyLibC is a clone of glibc for Windows. The author wrote this to reduce the size of executables that resulted when glib was used on Windows. Sources are provided.

uClibc - C Library for Embedded Systems

uClibc is a C library for developing embedded Linux systems. It supports shared libraries, multithreading and runs on standard Linux systems with support for ARM, i386, h8300, m68k, mips, mipsel, PowerPC, SH, SPARC, and v850 processors.

GradC++ ToolBox

GradC++ ToolBox contains several C++ components dealing with threading, program options, logging, and initialisation of COBRA services. It comes with an administrative guide, programmers' guide and sources. The C++ library may be used free of charge for non-commercial purposes.

IO95: Win95 LFN API Wrapper Library

This library has functions which you can call from your MSDOS programs to access the long filenames (LFN) API found in Windows 95 and above. It thus makes it easy for you to write long file name (LFN) support. The library contains the POSIX.1 compatible opendir() functions, DOS findfirst() functions, open() functions, fopen() functions, mk/rm/chdir(), remove(), unlink(), rename(), getcwd(), getdcwd(), getcurdir(), fullpath(), lfn2sfn(). As you can see, all the hard work of accessing the API has been done for you - just use the usual familiar functions (whether Unix or DOS). It requires a Borland compiler to compile (which you can get it for free, legally - check out the Free C/C++ Compilers page).

U2NT Library: Unix/NT Cross-Platform Library

This is a library that eases the work needed to port Unix programs to NT. There aren't many details on the website about the libraries' capabilities, but you can simply download it from their site and check it out yourself.

ClibPDF PDF Library

ClibPDF is a C library that allows you to create PDF files from your application or even CGI scripts. With PDF files becoming more popular on the Internet, it is beginning to look like it may be a good idea for more applications to be able to create and access PDF files. The library is free if you are using it for non-profit purposes.

Graph Template Library (GTL)

This C++ graph library, based on the Standard Template Library (STL), contains classes useful when you work with graphs, nodes, and edges, as well as basic algorithms which can be used to build more complex graph algorithms. The library has been used on Solaris, Linux, Windows NT, 95, 98, HP-UX and FreeBSD, although it is possible that it works elsewhere as well.

Matrix TCL Lite

Matrix TCL Lite is a C++ matrix template class that may be used for common matrix operations like any other built-in data types. It has been tested with Borland C++ 5.0 (both 16 and 32 bit); Borland C++ 5.5, C++ Builder version 1.0, 3.0, 4.0 and 5.0; MS Visual C++ version 4.0, 4.2, 5.0 and 6.0; SUN g++ under Sun Solaris; GNU C++ and SGI C++ version 7.2.1; Metrowerks CodeWarrior Pro 5; and Sybase Power++ v 2.1.


Ensemble is a toolkit for building reliable distributed applications. Included in this toolkit is a library of protocols which you can use to build your distributed applications. The library primarily uses UDP/IP sockets. You can write your applications in C, C++, Java (on Solaris and NT), and ML. Ensemble itself is written in ML and will apparently run on any platform that supports Objective Caml and sockets, including Windows, SunOS4, Solaris, Linux and RS6000-AIX. You can get the binaries for SunOS, Solaris, Linux and Windows NT. Source code is also available for download.


This is a plotting library for displaying data as curves, bar graphs, pie charts, 3D-colour plots, surfaces, contours and maps. Versions are available for C, Fortran 77 and Fortran 90 compilers on Linux, FreeBSD, OpenVMS, MS-DOS, Windows 95/98/NT, and other flavours of Unix. On some operating systems, Java, Perl, and Python are also supported. (Not all versions of the library are free, though.)


This C library "allows network management applications to access SMI MIB module information through a well defined API that hides the nasty details of locating and parsing SMIv1/v2 MIB modules."

GNET Network Library

This is a simple network library built on top of glib. It works on Linux, BSD, Mac OS X, Solaris, HP and Windows.

LibJeeps Library

This is a "Unix-based Garmin CPS communication and analysis function library and development system. To quote/paraphrase from their documentation, it includes high level host communication routines that treat waypoints, almanacs, etc as objects; datum conversions; cartographic functions; etc. The source code is distributed under the GNU LGPL, and is written in ANSI C.

Whisper C++ Application Framework

Whisper is a general purpose C++ application framework, which takes advantage of templates, multiple inheritance, STL and exceptions. It is portable to both Macintosh and Win32. It contains numerous debugging tools.


This is a CORBA 2 ORB (with associated libraries) that was originally developed by AT&T Laboratories, Cambridge, and is certified CORBA 2.1 compliant. OmniORB is distributed under the GNU GPL and the libraries in the package is distributed under the Library GPL. The package is designed in such a way so that you can actually distribute your applications that use the libraries without being forced to release your source code as well. Platforms supported include Solaris, Windows NT, Windows 95, Linux (x86, PowerPC), Digital Unix, AIX, HPUX, Open VMS (Alpha and Vax), NextStep, Reliant Unix, Phar Lap's Real Time ETS Kernel, SGI Irix, SCO Unixware, MacOS, OS RTEMS, SCO OpenServer, etc. In case you are wondering what CORBA is, it basically defines the interface and API that allows programs to communicate with each other even if they are running on separate machines on different hardware and operating systems. If you need more information, you can check up the Object Management Group's website for their beginner's guide.

GNU Common C++

GNU Common C++ is a C++ framework for developing portable threaded applications. It has abstractions for threads, sockets, XML parsing, serialization, config files, and so on, hiding the differences between platforms in its classes so that you can write code that is (hopefully) portable. It is released under the GNU GPL license.

Hoard malloc/free Replacement

Hoard is a malloc/free replacement that is supposed to be fast, scalable and memory efficient. It supports Linux and other Unix platforms.


This is a free implementation of the curses package of Unix. It has all the BSD curses facilities plus the System V enhancements. Platforms supported include Linux and most (if not all) Unix systems. It has been ported even to OS/2. For those not familiar with curses, this is library that allows programs to write to the screen in a terminal-independent manner.

OPP C++ Class Library

A C++ class library that has a number of features, including classes for retrieving files via HTTP, sending and receiving email, database classes, thread support, string class, html parser, etc. It supports Unix platforms.

Boehm-Demers-Weiser Garbage Collector

A garbage collector for C/C++ that can also function as a memory leak detector. You can simply replace your calls to malloc() with GC_malloc(). Win32, Win32s, OS/2, MacOS, AmigaDOS and Unix systems are supported.


Verify md5sum using linux
md5sum -c linux.iso.md5

Create an md5sum using linux
md5sum linux.iso > linux.iso.md5

Verify md5sum using windows
rename the md5sum file (.md5sum, .asc, etc.) to .md5 extension if not already.
Download QuickPar and in options check Associate with SFV/MD5 files
Double-click linux.iso.md5 and it'll verify it's md5sum.
linux.iso and linux.iso.md5 must be in the same directory.

Curl has support for files over 2GB while wget only has a hacked patched version.

To download a linux iso using wget or curl
curl -o linux.iso

To download a linux iso using wget or curl that has hot-linking protection
wget –referer=
curl -o linux.iso -e

To resume a partially download file using wget or curl
wget -c –referer=
curl -C - -o linux.iso -e

To resume a partially download file via ftp with username and password using curl
curl -C - -u username:password -o linux.iso

To download many linux iso images in queue using wget or curl
wget –referer=

curl -C - -o linux.iso -e

To get the size of all directories in the current directory:
find . -maxdepth 1 -type d -print | xargs du -sk | sort -rn

A spiffy way to see what directories are taking up the most space on your hard drive is du -sk * | sort -n — this will show just the base-level directories in whatever directory you run this in. So it will include the size of sub-directories, but not list them in the output.

To run a program in the background simply add a & to the end of your command, i.e. top &. If you have already started the program and you now want to run it in the background first suspsend it with CTRL - Z then type bg To get the program back in the foreground simply issue the command fg.

Instead of cd /home/user you can simply cd ~ or cd to quickly get to your home directory. also cd - will return you to your previous directory you were in.

If you untar a package, and it makes a mess of your directory because the packager didn't include the files in his tarball in a directory, you can use rm `tar ftz stupidpackage-1.0.0.tar.gz` to quickly get rid of those cluttering files.

This might sound silly, but for the longest time I didn't know how to examine my system and it's information effectively. issuing df or df -h will show you free and used disk space, procinfo if installed gives you a wealth of information from /proc, and overmore cat/proc/interrupts or cat /proc/cpuinfo gives your irq settings and your cpu information respectively. Play around, /proc holds many more system tid bits if you look.

If you want to mirror via ftp something like the latest RedHat distribution, an easy way is to use Midnight Commander (mc). Type: $ mc and then press F9 and select FTP link . . . and enter a host such as Move to directory you want to download and select file/directory by Insert-key and press F5 to copy. This may be a nice alternative for people who don't want to use a command line FTP client.

Search for SUID programs to save yourself from getting rooted with find / -perm -4000

Sometimes it is necessary to know which rpm package contains one or another file. One way to make a catalog of all files from all rpms of your favorite distribution is:
rpm -qpil /mnt/cdrom/YourDistro/RPMS/*rpm > rpms-info.txt

This will create rpms-info.txt file contaning information about each rpm from requested directory with the list of all files encapsulated in each rpm packages. The same should work for ftp directories.

lsmod is a great way to check out information about your loaded modules.

You can use the smbmount command to mount windows shares like normal drives. For this you need samba and smbfs support in your kernel. The syntax is:
smbmount "\\\\name\\share" -c 'mount /mnt/point' -I ip#
smbmount "\\\\WINDOZE\\c" -c 'mount /mnt/smb1' -I

While using bash, if you have typed a long command, and then realize you don't want to execute it yet, don't delete it. Simply append a # to the beginning of the line, and then hit enter. Bash will not execute the command, but will store it in history so later you can go back, remove the # from the front, and execute it.

To view the contents of a file that is growing in size (e.g. a log file) use tail +0 -f file. The command tail -0 -f file can be used to create an ersatz or substitute FIFO.

Where has all my disk space gone! start in /home or /var and run the following:
du -S | sort -n -r | more

which will lists directory sizes, starting with the largest.

Sometimes you may want to unzip more than one file simultaneously. Doing unzip * does not work, the correct way to do it is by adding quotes, like this: unzip "*"

In the bash console, hitting ALT-printscreen will switch you immediately to the tty you were last at.

To search the entire hard disk for files containing "pattern" you can use find:
find / -name '*' -exec grep pattern {} \;

Type ls -alF | grep /$ for a list of subdirs in the current directory. I have this aliased to 'lsd'

netstat -a will allow you to see all the tcp and udp ports your system has open.

pstree will print out they system's tree of process, so you can see what processes came from what processes.

To look at an RPMs information for both already installed packages and packages for which you have the file for, rpm -qi package_name will do it.

A cool way to get screenshots in X windows is to use the import command. Example: import background.jpg then make a box around what you want with you cursor.

You can use all valid terminals, even if they aren't being used, by sending your data to the terminal number you want. Example: tail -f /var/log/messages > /dev/tty12
would send any messages or syslog stuff to tty12, which is accessable by LEFTALT-F12.

If you want to run a command and log out while it is running, you nohup. Example: nohup program or nohup %1

To use a text mode other than the default 80×25, such as 80×50 or even 132×60, put vga=ask into your lilo.conf file and then run lilo. When you reboot it will let you choose your video mode. When you decide which one you want, you can put vga=n where n is the number of the video mode you would like. Usually n is 1 through 8.


ifconfig eth0 <ipaddress>
route add default gw <ipofgateway>
vi /etc/HOSTNAME

lpr -P <printername>

mount -t ramfs ramfs /ramfiles
mount -o loop .iso /mnt/pt

lftp rm-r /mirror -Rv /localdirectory

mount -t iso9660 -o ro,loop=/dev/loop0 /var/tmp/some.iso /mnt/cdrom

ping <ipaddress> -i90 > /dev/null &

:set ic (ignore case-sensitivity)
%s/.\ (wg html logs)

dd if=boot.img of=/dev/fd0

cdrecord -scanbus
cdrecord -v -eject speed=4 dev=0,5,0 -isosize /dev/cdrom
cdrecord -v -eject speed=4 dev=0,5,0 /home/files

dd if=/dev/cdrom of=imagename.iso

mount -o loop somecool.iso /mnt/iso

tr -d '\r' < dosfile.txt > unixfile.txt

du -s * | awk '{printf("%6s %s\n", $1, $2)}' | sort could be, and could be .
ifconfig eth0:1; ifconfig eth0:2 to bind both ip addresses to a box.

mount -t smbfs -o username=user,password=pass //server/share /mount/point
smbmount //windowsmachine/sharename /mnt/mountpoint -I windowsIpAdress -U windowsUsername

wireless connections
iwconfig wlan0 essid topsecret
ifconfig wlan up
pump -i wlan0

________________________________________________________________ - - -

netmask | x | Subnet
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~|~~~~|~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ | /8 | Class A | /16 | Class B |/ 24 | Class C |/ 32 | Point-to-point


1 kilobyte = 2^10 Bytes = 1024 bytes
1 Megabyte = 2^20 Bytes = 1024 kilobytes
1 gigabyte = 2^30 Bytes = 1024 Megabytes
1 terabyte = 2^40 Bytes = 1024 gigabytes
1 petabyte = 2^50 Bytes = 1024 terabytes
1 Exabyte = 2^60 Bytes = 1024 petabytes
1 Zettabyte = 2^70 Bytes = 1024 Exabytes
1 Yottabyte = 2^80 Bytes = 1024 Zettabytes

1 kilobyte =1024 bytes
1 kilobytes=1048576 bytes
1 gigabyte =1073741824 bytes
1 terabyte =1099511627776 bytes
1 petabyte =1125899906842624 bytes
1 Exabyte =1152921504606846976 bytes
1 Zettabyte=1180591620717411303424 bytes
1 Yottabyte=1208925819614629174706176 bytes


Prevent Hotlinking

Prevent Hotlinking files and/or images code should be put in main config file if you have access to httpd.conf as opposed to .htaccess in the www/ directory if you have root access to server

vi /etc/apache/conf/httpd.conf (and put and end of file)

RewriteEngine on
RewriteCond %{HTTP_REFERER} !^$
RewriteCond %{HTTP_REFERER} !^http://(www\.)?*$ [NC]
RewriteRule .*\.(iso|exe|zip|rar|jpg)$ [R]

Then restart apache and it'll tell you if any errors exist or not
/etc/init.d/apache restart

If you don't have apache mod_rewrite loaded then you could use below however it restricts you only allowing you to return a 403 forbidden page.

SetEnvIfNoCase Referer "^" local_ref=1
SetEnvIfNoCase Referer "^" local_ref=1
SetEnvIfNoCase Referer "^$" local_ref=1
<FilesMatch ".(iso|exe|zip|rar|jpg)">
Order Allow,Deny
Allow from env=local_ref

Other links concerning preventing hotlinking


Here's a bash script which will resize images courtesy of

# Copyright (C) 1999 Maxim Heijndijk

# This program is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify
# it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by
# the Free Software Foundation; either version 2 of the License, or
# (at your option) any later version.

# This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful,
# but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
# GNU General Public License for more details.

# Email:"

# Uncomment the next line for debugging.
# set -x

if [ -z "$1" ]; then
echo -e "Usage: $0 <input-directory> <output-directory>
sleep 2
exit 1

if [ ! -d "$1" ]; then
echo -e "Input directory \"$1\" does not exist, exiting…."
sleep 2
exit 1

[ -d "$2" ] || mkdir -p "$2"

# If you want suffix renaming, uncomment the following lines.

#for SFX in ${SUFFIXES[@]} ; do
# for FILE in $1/*.${SFX} ; do
# BASENAME=`basename ${FILE} ${SFX}`
# if [ "${BASENAME}" != "*." ]; then
# mv -f $1/${BASENAME}${SFX} $2/${BASENAME}jpg
# fi
# done

for FILE in $1/*.jpg ; do
BASENAME=`basename ${FILE}`
convert -geometry "$3" \
-comment "%w%h" \
-normalize \
-quality 100 \
-verbose \

exit 0


Command Description
apropos whatis Show commands pertinent to string. See also threadsafe
man -t man | ps2pdf - > man.pdf make a pdf of a manual page
  which command Show full path name of command
  time command See how long a command takes
time cat Start stopwatch. Ctrl-d to stop. See also sw
nice info Run a low priority command (The "info" reader in this case)
renice 19 -p $$ Make shell (script) low priority. Use for non interactive tasks
dir navigation
cd - Go to previous directory
cd Go to $HOME directory
  (cd dir && command) Go to dir, execute command and return to current dir
pushd . Put current dir on stack so you can popd back to it
alias l='ls -l –color=auto' quick dir listing
ls -lrt List files by date. See also newest and find_mm_yyyy
ls /usr/bin | pr -T9 -W$COLUMNS Print in 9 columns to width of terminal
  find -name '*.[ch]' | xargs grep -E 'expr' Search 'expr' in this dir and below. See also findrepo
  find -type f -print0 | xargs -r0 grep -F 'example' Search all regular files for 'example' in this dir and below
  find -maxdepth 1 -type f | xargs grep -F 'example' Search all regular files for 'example' in this dir
  find -maxdepth 1 -type d | while read dir; do echo $dir; echo cmd2; done Process each item with multiple commands (in while loop)
find -type f ! -perm -444 Find files not readable by all (useful for web site)
find -type d ! -perm -111 Find dirs not accessible by all (useful for web site)
locate -r 'file[^/]*\.txt' Search cached index for names. This re is like glob *file*.txt
look reference Quickly search (sorted) dictionary for prefix
grep –color reference /usr/share/dict/words Highlight occurances of regular expression in dictionary
archives and compression
  gpg -c file Encrypt file
  gpg file.gpg Decrypt file
  tar -c dir/ | bzip2 > dir.tar.bz2 Make compressed archive of dir/
  bzip2 -dc dir.tar.bz2 | tar -x Extract archive (use gzip instead of bzip2 for tar.gz files)
  tar -c dir/ | gzip | gpg -c | ssh user@remote 'dd of=dir.tar.gz.gpg' Make encrypted archive of dir/ on remote machine
  find dir/ -name '*.txt' | tar -c –files-from=- | bzip2 > dir_txt.tar.bz2 Make archive of subset of dir/ and below
  find dir/ -name '*.txt' | xargs cp -a –target-directory=dir_txt/ –parents Make copy of subset of dir/ and below
  ( tar -c /dir/to/copy ) | ( cd /where/to/ && tar -x -p ) Copy (with permissions) copy/ dir to /where/to/ dir
  ( cd /dir/to/copy && tar -c . ) | ( cd /where/to/ && tar -x -p ) Copy (with permissions) contents of copy/ dir to /where/to/
  ( tar -c /dir/to/copy ) | ssh -C user@remote 'cd /where/to/ && tar -x -p' Copy (with permissions) copy/ dir to remote:/where/to/ dir
  dd bs=1M if=/dev/sda | gzip | ssh user@remote 'dd of=sda.gz' Backup harddisk to remote machine
rsync (Network efficient file copier: Use the –dry-run option for testing)
  rsync -P rsync:// file Only get diffs. Do multiple times for troublesome downloads
  rsync –bwlimit=1000 fromfile tofile Locally copy with rate limit. It's like nice for I/O
  rsync -az -e ssh –delete ~/public_html/'~/public_html' Mirror web site (using compression and encryption)
  rsync -auz -e ssh remote:/dir/ . && rsync -auz -e ssh . remote:/dir/ Synchronize current directory with remote one
ssh (Secure SHell)
  ssh $USER@$HOST command Run command on $HOST as $USER (default command=shell)
ssh -f -Y $USER@$HOSTNAME xeyes Run GUI command on $HOSTNAME as $USER
  scp -p -r $USER@$HOST: file dir/ Copy with permissions to $USER's home directory on $HOST
  ssh -g -L 8080:localhost:80 root@$HOST Forward connections to $HOSTNAME:8080 out to $HOST:80
  ssh -R 1434:imap:143 root@$HOST Forward connections from $HOST:1434 in to imap:143
wget (multi purpose download tool)
(cd cli && wget -nd -pHEKk Store local browsable version of a page to the current dir
  wget -c Continue downloading a partially downloaded file
  wget -r -nd -np -l1 -A '*.jpg' Download a set of files to the current directory
  wget ftp://remote/file[1-9].iso/ FTP supports globbing directly
wget -q -O- | grep 'a href' | head Process output directly
  echo 'wget url' | at 01:00 Download url at 1AM to current dir
  wget –limit-rate=20k url Do a low priority download (limit to 20KB/s in this case)
  wget -nv –spider –force-html -i bookmarks.html Check links in a file
  wget –mirror Efficiently update a local copy of a site (handy from cron)
networking (Note ifconfig, route, mii-tool, nslookup commands are obsolete)
  ethtool eth0 Show status of ethernet interface eth0
  ethtool –change eth0 autoneg off speed 100 duplex full Manually set ethernet interface speed
  iwconfig eth1 Show status of wireless interface eth1
  iwconfig eth1 rate 1Mb/s fixed Manually set wireless interface speed
iwlist scan List wireless networks in range
ip link show List network interfaces
  ip link set dev eth0 name wan Rename interface eth0 to wan
  ip link set dev eth0 up Bring interface eth0 up (or down)
ip addr show List addresses for interfaces
  ip addr add brd + dev eth0 Add (or del) ip and mask (
ip route show List routing table
  ip route add default via Set default gateway to
tc qdisc add dev lo root handle 1:0 netem delay 20msec Add 20ms latency to loopback device (for testing)
tc qdisc del dev lo root Remove latency added above
host Lookup DNS ip address for name or vice versa
hostname -i Lookup local ip address (equivalent to host `hostname`)
whois Lookup whois info for hostname or ip address
netstat -tupl List internet services on a system
netstat -tup List active connections to/from system
windows networking (Note samba is the package that provides all this windows specific networking support)
smbtree Find windows machines. See also findsmb
  nmblookup -A Find the windows (netbios) name associated with ip address
  smbclient -L windows_box List shares on windows machine or samba server
  mount -t smbfs -o fmask=666,guest //windows_box/share /mnt/share Mount a windows share
  echo 'message' | smbclient -M windows_box Send popup to windows machine (off by default in XP sp2)
text manipulation (Note sed uses stdin and stdout, so if you want to edit files, append <oldfile >newfile)
  sed 's/string1/string2/g' Replace string1 with string2
  sed 's/\(.*\)1/\12/g' Modify anystring1 to anystring2
  sed '/ *#/d; /^ *$/d' Remove comments and blank lines
  sed ':a; /\\$/N; s/\\\n//; ta' Concatenate lines with trailing \
  sed 's/[ \t]*$//' Remove trailing spaces from lines
  sed 's/\([\\`\\"$\\\\]\)/\\\1/g' Escape shell metacharacters active within double quotes
seq 10 | sed "s/^/      /; s/ *\(.\{7,\}\)/\1/" Right align numbers
  sed -n '1000p;1000q' Print 1000th line
  sed -n '10,20p;20q' Print lines 10 to 20
  sed -n 's/.*<title>\(.*\)<\/title>.*/\1/ip;T;q' Extract title from HTML web page
  sort -t. -k1,1n -k2,2n -k3,3n -k4,4n Sort IPV4 ip addresses
echo 'Test' | tr '[:lower:]' '[:upper:]' Case conversion
tr -dc '[:print:]' < /dev/urandom Filter non printable characters
history | wc -l Count lines
set operations (Note you can export LANG=C for speed. Also these assume no duplicate lines within a file)
  sort file1 file2 | uniq Union of unsorted files
  sort file1 file2 | uniq -d Intersection of unsorted files
  sort file1 file1 file2 | uniq -u Difference of unsorted files
  sort file1 file2 | uniq -u Symmetric Difference of unsorted files
  join -a1 -a2 file1 file2 Union of sorted files
  join file1 file2 Intersection of sorted files
  join -v2 file1 file2 Difference of sorted files
  join -v1 -v2 file1 file2 Symmetric Difference of sorted files
echo '(1 + sqrt(5))/2' | bc -l Quick math (Calculate φ). See also bc
echo 'pad=20; min=64; (100*10^6)/((pad+min)*8)' | bc More complex (int) e.g. This shows max FastE packet rate
echo 'pad=20; min=64; print (100E6)/((pad+min)*8)' | python Python handles scientific notation
echo 'pad=20; plot [64:1518] (100*10**6)/((pad+x)*8)' | gnuplot -persist Plot FastE packet rate vs packet size
echo 'obase=16; ibase=10; 64206' | bc Base conversion (decimal to hexadecimal)
echo $((0×2dec)) Base conversion (hex to dec) ((shell arithmetic expansion))
units -t '100m/9.72s' 'miles/hour' Unit conversion (metric to imperial)
units -t '500GB' 'GiB' Unit conversion (SI to IEC prefixes)
units -t '1 googol' Definition lookup
seq 100 | (tr '\n' +; echo 0) | bc Add a column of numbers. See also add and funcpy
cal -3 Display a calendar
cal 9 1752 Display a calendar for a particular month year
date -d fri What date is it this friday. See also day
date –date='25 Dec' +%A What day does xmas fall on, this year
date –date='@2147483647' Convert seconds since the epoch (1970-01-01 UTC) to date
TZ=':America/Los_Angeles' date What time is it on West coast of US (use tzselect to find TZ)
  echo "mail -s 'get the train' < /dev/null" | at 17:45 Email reminder
echo "DISPLAY=$DISPLAY xmessage cooker" | at "NOW + 30 minutes" Popup reminder
printf "%'d\n" 1234 Print number with thousands grouping appropriate to locale
BLOCK_SIZE=\'1 ls -l get ls to do thousands grouping appropriate to locale
echo "I live in `locale territory`" Extract info from locale database
LANG=en_IE.utf8 locale int_prefix Lookup locale info for specific country. See also ccodes
locale | cut -d= -f1 | xargs locale -kc | less List fields available in locale database
recode (Obsoletes iconv, dos2unix, unix2dos)
recode -l | less Show available conversions (aliases on each line)
  recode windows-1252.. file_to_change.txt Windows "ansi" to local charset (auto does CRLF conversion)
  recode utf-8/CRLF.. file_to_change.txt Windows utf8 to local charset
  recode iso-8859-15..utf8 file_to_change.txt Latin9 (western europe) to utf8
  recode ../b64 < file.txt > file.b64 Base64 encode
  recode /qp.. < file.txt > file.qp Quoted printable decode
  recode ..HTML < file.txt > file.html Text to HTML
recode -lf windows-1252 | grep euro Lookup table of characters
echo -n 0×80 | recode latin-9/x1..dump Show what a code represents in latin-9 charmap
echo -n 0×20AC | recode ucs-2/x2..latin-9/x Show latin-9 encoding
echo -n 0×20AC | recode ucs-2/x2..utf-8/x Show utf-8 encoding
  gzip < /dev/cdrom > cdrom.iso.gz Save copy of data cdrom
  mkisofs -V LABEL -r dir | gzip > cdrom.iso.gz Create cdrom image from contents of dir
  mount -o loop cdrom.iso /mnt/dir Mount the cdrom image at /mnt/dir (read only)
  cdrecord -v dev=/dev/cdrom blank=fast Clear a CDRW
  gzip -dc cdrom.iso.gz | cdrecord -v dev=/dev/cdrom - Burn cdrom image (use dev=ATAPI -scanbus to confirm dev)
  cdparanoia -B Rip audio tracks from CD to wav files in current dir
  cdrecord -v dev=/dev/cdrom -audio *.wav Make audio CD from all wavs in current dir (see also cdrdao)
  oggenc –tracknum='track' track.cdda.wav -o 'track.ogg' Make ogg file from wav file
disk space (See also FSlint)
ls -lSr Show files by size, biggest last
du -s * | sort -k1,1rn | head Show top disk users in current dir. See also dutop
df -h Show free space on mounted filesystems
df -i Show free inodes on mounted filesystems
fdisk -l Show disks partitions sizes and types (run as root)
rpm -q -a –qf '%10{SIZE}\t%{NAME}\n' | sort -k1,1n List all packages by installed size (Bytes) on rpm distros
dpkg-query -W -f='${Installed-Size;10}\t${Package}\n' | sort -k1,1n List all packages by installed size (KBytes) on deb distros
dd bs=1 seek=2TB if=/dev/null of=ext3.test Create a large test file (taking no space). See also truncate
tail -f /var/log/messages Monitor messages in a log file
strace -c ls >/dev/null Summarise/profile system calls made by command
strace -f -e open ls >/dev/null List system calls made by command
ltrace -f -e getenv ls >/dev/null List library calls made by command
lsof -p $$ List paths that process id has open
lsof ~ List processes that have specified path open
tcpdump not port 22 Show network traffic except ssh. See also tcpdump_not_me
ps -e -o pid,args –forest List processes in a hierarchy
ps -e -o pcpu,cpu,nice,state,cputime,args –sort pcpu | sed '/^ 0.0 /d' List processes by % cpu usage
ps -e -orss=,args= | sort -b -k1,1n | pr -TW$COLUMNS List processes by mem usage. See also
ps -C firefox-bin -L -o pid,tid,pcpu,state List all threads for a particular process
ps -p 1,2 List info for particular process IDs
last reboot Show system reboot history
free -m Show amount of (remaining) RAM (-m displays in MB)
watch -n.1 'cat /proc/interrupts' Watch changeable data continuously
system information (see also sysinfo) ('#' means root access is required)
uname -a Show kernel version and system architecture
head -n1 /etc/issue Show name and version of distribution
cat /proc/partitions Show all partitions registered on the system
grep MemTotal /proc/meminfo Show RAM total seen by the system
grep "model name" /proc/cpuinfo Show CPU(s) info
lspci -tv Show PCI info
lsusb -tv Show USB info
mount | column -t List mounted filesystems on the system (and align output)
# dmidecode -q | less Display SMBIOS/DMI information
# smartctl -A /dev/sda | grep Power_On_Hours How long has this disk (system) been powered on in total
# hdparm -i /dev/sda Show info about disk sda
# hdparm -tT /dev/sda Do a read speed test on disk sda
# badblocks -s /dev/sda Test for unreadable blocks on disk sda
interactive (see also linux keyboard shortcuts)
readline Line editor used by bash, python, bc, gnuplot, …
screen Virtual terminals with detach capability, …
mc Powerful file manager that can browse rpm, tar, ftp, ssh, …
gnuplot Interactive/scriptable graphing
links Web browser
xdg-open open a file or url with the registered desktop application
alias hd='od -Ax -tx1z -v' Handy hexdump. (usage e.g.: • hd /proc/self/cmdline | less)
alias realpath='readlink -f' Canonicalize path. (usage e.g.: • realpath ~/../$USER)
set | grep $USER Search current environment
  touch -c -t 0304050607 file Set file timestamp (YYMMDDhhmm)
python -c "import SimpleHTTPServer as ws; ws.test()" Serve current directory tree at http://$HOSTNAME:8000/
  Info  106.2 HumFM   106.2   UAE   Asian    
  Info  Aamar FM   106.2FM   Calcutta   Urban Contemporary    
  Info  All India Radio      New Delhi   Variety    
  Info  Apna Radio      Phoenix   Asian    
  Info  BBC Asiannetwork      London   Unknown Format    
  Info  fm100   fm   Sialkot   Asian   Malikbhye 
  Info  Go 92.5   92.5   Bombay   Variety    
  Info      delhi   Unknown Format    
  Info  India FM         Unknown Format    
  Info  Power 107.8FM   107.8 FM   Calcutta   Pop    
  Info  Radio 4 FM   24 hours      Asian    
  Info  Radio Bakwaas         Multi-National    
  Info  Radio City   FM 91   Bangalore   Unknown Format    
  Info  Radio Mirchi   98.3   Mumbai   Asian    
  Info  Radio4FM         Variety    
  Info  Radioofindia         Unknown Format    
  Info  Red FM   93.5   Delhi   Public Radio    
 [BC] Info  Sikhnet         Asian    
  Info  Suriyan FM   105.8   Chennai   Unknown Format    
  Info  Win 94.6   94.6   Mumbai   Unknown Format    

All the Xp users would have been bored by the boring icons in their My Computer panel which are adjacent to the Hard disk drives(C:,D: or whatever drive letter you have).By default it is something like this:

Here is a simple tweak by which you will be able to change this monotonous icon to anything you like,even your own Picture if you wish.Here is an example of what kind of output you can get:

You can put any image in place of one which I have shown,even the picture of your favourite celebrity or your dream caror your own Picture.Here are the steps you need to follow:

1.First of all the picture you want to use should have .ico extension(if you already have a pic with .ico extension proceed to step 2).Most of the pictures we normally use have extensions like .jpg,.bmp,.png..gif etc, so you first need to convert them to one with .ico extension.This is simple.Just go here and put your original image in the 'Source Image 'section,then click on 'Generate Favicon.ico ' button to get your image with .ico extension.

2.Now go to My Computer.Suppose you want to put this icon in place of your original C: image.
Double click and enter C: .Paste your .ico image file in it.Also create a new text file and in it type the following lines:


Remember that 'favicon.ico' in the second line is the name of your image file.If you have an image file with .ico extension by the name of 'abc.ico',then use that in the second line in place of 'favicon.ico'.

3.Now rename this text file as ' autorun.inf ' (without the quotes).

Important Note:How do I rename my text file as autorun.inf ?

Ans.Go to Tools->Folder options.Under the View tab uncheck the 'Hide extensions for known file types'.Press apply.Now rename your text file as 'autorun.inf'.

You should get something like this in your C: now:

4.Now restart your Pc.You are done.Check out the cool new picture you have just added in your My computer panel.

If you have any problems regarding implementing this or any suggestions,feel free to leave a comment.



All you need to do is… right-click on an empty Desktop spot -> select New -> Shortcut -> type shutdown followed by a space, and then enter one or more of the parameters listed below -> click Next -> type a suggestive name for your new shortcut -> finally, click Finish.

This is the Shutdown.exe (located in %systemroot%\System32, usually C:\Windows\System32) syntax:

shutdown [-i|-l|-s|-r|-a] [-f] [-m \\computername] [-t xx] [-c "Text"] [-d[u][p]:xx:yy]>

Valid command line switches:

-a = Abort system shutdown in progress ONLY IF the -t xx timeout option was already set to ANY value other than 0. ALL switches except -l and -m are ignored during abort.

-c "Text" = Text comment (case insensitive) to be displayed in the Message area of the System Shutdown window. MUST be enclosed between quotes. Maximum allowed 127 ASCII characters.

-d [u][p]:xx:yy = Reason code for shutdown:
u = User code.
p = Planned shutdown code.
xx = Major reason code. Positive integer number less than 256.
yy = Minor reason code. Positive integer number less than 65536.

-f = Force running applications to close without warning.

-i = Display the shutdown interface (GUI). MUST be the first option!

-l = Log off the current user of the local computer (default action). Can NOT be used with the -m option unless the current user has Sysadmin rights, in which case the -m switch takes precedence.

\computername = Remote/network computer name (most always case sensitive) to log off/restart/shut down. Current user MUST have Sysadmin rights to be allowed to use this switch!

-s = Shut down the local computer.

-r = Shut down and restart (reboot) the local computer.

-t xx = Set shutdown timer to timeout for xx seconds. IF NOT specified defaults to 20 seconds. Allowed values between 0 and 99 seconds. The -a switch is the ONLY one that CAN be used during the timeout period.

The dash (-) in front of these switches can be replaced by a forward slash (/).

Spaces are NOT required to separate the shutdown command from ANY following switches, but ARE required to separate ANY switch from its following parameter(s), if any.
For example:

shutdown -s -c "Shutting down!" -t 3

tells your computer to shutdown after waiting for 3 seconds while the System Shutdown window will display text above in the Message area.

Optional: after you're done creating your customized shortcut for shutdown -> right-click on it -> select Properties -> enter your desired key "combo" in the Shortcut Key box (e.g. Ctrl + Alt + End) -> click OK/Apply.
From now on just left-click on your shutdown shortcut or hit that key combination to turn off/restart/log off your computer.




Suppose you want to lock the folder movies in d: which has the path D:\movies.In the same drive create a text file and type
ren movies movies.{21EC2020-3AEA-1069-A2DD-08002B30309D}
Now save this text file as loc.bat
Create another text file and type in it
ren movies.{21EC2020-3AEA-1069-A2DD-08002B30309D} movies
Now save this text file as key.bat
batch files loc and key. Press loc and the folder games will change to control panel and you cannot view its contents. Press key and you will get back your original folder.
try it out!!!!!!!





Removing Shared Documents folder From My Computer window:

Open registry editor by going to Start then Run and entering regedit. Once in registry, navigate to key

HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE \ SOFTWARE \ Microsoft \ Windows \ CurrentVersion \ Explorer \ My Computer \ NameSpace \ DelegateFolders

You must see a sub-key named {59031a47-3f72-44a7-89c5-5595fe6b30ee}. If you delete this key, you have effectively removed the my shared documents folder.

open notepad write "bush hid the facts" sans the quotes and save it
with any name now open it well what do you see ???
the reason for this is that the file has the combination of
5-3-3-4 which is not accepted by unicode thus this error.
 how to hide folders in windows XP

well simple for this you have to know how to create .bat
(batch files) well for starters just open the notepad and write
these commands :
ren (file name here) (file name here).{21EC2020-3AEA-1069-A2DD-08002B30309D}
go in save as this will be the lock so name it "lock.bat"(with the quotes)
for eg my file name is abc the code will be:
ren abc abc.{21EC2020-3AEA-1069-A2DD-08002B30309D}
to unlock it is simple
ren abc.{21EC2020-3AEA-1069-A2DD-08002B30309D} abc
this will unlock the locked file well the reason is it copies the attributes
of the control panel in clsid !!!!

play movie on microsoft paint

simple first hit the print screen button on the keyboard when
then media files are playing then open paint and paste by
pressing ctrl+v (paste key) voila the movie starts on the
paint application

 Renaming The Recycle Bin icon:

To change the name of the Recycle Bin desktop icon, click Start then goto Run, write Regedit and press Enter. It opens Registry Editor. Now in Registry Editor go to:


On the right pane, locate the registry key of LocalizedString.

Double click on LocalizedString or right click on LocalizedString and select Modify to modify the registry value.

You should see the default value of “@%SystemRoot%\system32\SHELL32.dll,-8964″. Delete or remove the default value and key in your desired new recycle bin’s name in text, e.g. “Garbage Bin” (without quote).

Refresh your desktop or Windows Explorer by pressing F5. You will see the new ‘recycle bin’ name.

Optionally, you can also modify the text of InfoTip, commonly known as tooltip what display certain help tip, guide or description about Recycle Bin when the mouse is hovering on Recycle Bin icon on desktop. The default text is “Contains files and folders that you have deleted.” Simply double click on InfoTip, or right click on InfoTip and select Modify to change the text of the info tip.

The default value is “@%SystemRoot%\system32\SHELL32.dll,-22915″, simply change it to another description that you want the tooltip to be.

Refresh the desktop to make it effective.

registry hack to speed up windows xp shut down

Whenever you shut down your computer, it takes a lot of time in closing all the running applications.And worse, if they stop responding, then you have to click either end task or wait for windows to shut it down. Now you can apply a registry hack that automatically shuts the non-responding annoying applications instantly and without any interruption. Apply the following registry hack to speed up windows xp.

1. Open regestry editor from Start -> Run -> type regedit
2. Find HKEY_CURRENT_USER\Control Panel\Desktop
on the left side of the registry editor window.
3. Double click on AutoEndTasks key from the right window and assign the value to be 1. The default value is 0.

Reverting the process is also very simple. Just change the AutoEndTasks value to 0.

Customize Internet Explorer's Title Bar:

Open Registry by going to Start then Run and Enter regedit. Navigate to HKEY_CURRENT_USER\Software\Microsoft\Internet. Explorer\Main. In right hand panel look for string "Window Title" and change its value to whatever custom text you want to see. 

Get Drivers for your Devices:

Visit Windows Update (XP Only)

Look at the left hand pane and under Other Options click Personalize Windows Update.
Now in the right hand pane check the box - Display the link to the Windows Update Catalog under See Also
Below Choose which categories and updates to display on Windows Update - make sure you check all the boxes you want shown.
Click Save Settings
Now look in the left hand pane under See Also click Windows Update Catalog and choose what you're looking for. Choose either MS updates or drivers for hardware devices.
Start the Wizard and off you go.








Friendship is about. bringing out the positive when everything seems negative…being accepted for who you are…being able to pick up right where you left off…sharing, talking, and laughing…Friendship is about us, and for that I'm grateful. And I hope you have the best birthday ever, friend!
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In my past life, god said a gem is going to be born on (date) and i give u a boon that u get to be this beautiful gem's friend…couldnt ask for anything more but thank the god for giving me a friend like u…happy birthday and dont forget that someone somewhere is wishing for ur happiness on every falling star."
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Apne dil ko tatolke apni baat keh do. 'Today is a day of celebration. Why? xx years ago on the same day, GOD sent me my flesh and bone conscience. Wishing my Friendly Inner Voice a very happy b-day. Hugs & Kisses'
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Apun wishing you a wonderful, super duper, zabardast, xtra bar

A silent night, a star above, a blessed gift of hope and love. A blessed Christmas to you! Happy Holidays.
Category: Christmas SMS
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Its nearing the festive season again and so, just a reminder that a little doggy isnt just for Christmas……………Its a great position all year round!
Category: Christmas SMS
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There is no ideal Christmas; only the one Christmas you decide to make as a reflection of your values, desires, affections, traditions.
Category: Christmas SMS
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Christmas waves a magic wand over this world, and behold, everything is softer and more beautiful.
Category: Christmas SMS
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Blessed is the season which engages the whole world in a conspiracy of love.
Category: Christmas SMS

Diwali aai, masti chahi, rangi rangoli,
deep jalaye, Dhoom Dhadaka, chhoda phataka, jali Phuljadiyan,
Sabko Bhaye, "Happy Diwali"
Category: Deepawali SMS, Diwali SMS
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Diwali Parva hai Khushio ka,
Ujalo ka, Laxmi ka…. Is Diwali Aapki Jindagi khushio se bhari ho,
Duniya ujalo se roshan ho, ghar par Maa Laxmi ka Aagman ho…
Happy Diwali
Category: Deepawali SMS, Diwali SMS
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Laxmi aayegi itni ki sab jagah Naam hoga,
Din raat vyapar bade itna adhik kaam hoga,
Ghar Pariwar samaj me banoge Sartaj, Yehi Kamna hai hamari aap ke liye
Diwali ki Dhero Shubh Kamanaye…
Category: Deepawali SMS, Diwali SMS
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Deep Jalte jagmagate rahe, Hum aapko Aap hame yaad aate rahe,
Jab tak zindagi hai, dua hai hamari 'Aap Chand ki tarah Zagmagate rahe…' Happy Diwali.
Category: Deepawali SMS, Diwali SMS
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Troubles as light as Air,
love as deep as Ocean,
Friends as Solid as Diamonds,
and Success as bright as Gold…
These are the wishes for you and your family on the eve of Diwali

May Allah bring you joy, happiness, peace and prosperity on this blessed occasion.
Wishing you and your family on this happy occasion of Eid! Eid Mubarak!
Category: Eid SMS
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My Blessing, Congratulations and Good wishes. I wish you the best of everything for
not only in EID-UL-AZHA but also all the years ahead.*EID MUBARAK*
Category: Eid SMS
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May God send his Love like Sunshine in his warm and gentle ways to fill every corner
of your Heart and filled your Life with a lot of Happiness like this EID DAY. Wishing you EID MUBARAK
Category: Eid SMS
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Wishing you all the very best.By the grace of Allah, let there be peace everywhere.
Eid Mubarak to all of you
Category: Eid SMS
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May the magic of dis EID bring lots of happiness in ur life & may u celebrate it wid all
ur close friendzzzzzz & may it fill ur HEART wid wonders

What are the difference between a peso and a friend? A peso is easy to earn, a friend is hard to find. A peso loses its value, a friend increases its worth. I don't have a peso but I have you!
Category: Encouraging SMS
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Words and hearts should be handled with care… for words when spoken and hearts when broken are the hardest things to repair.
Category: Encouraging SMS
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Keep the race through God's good grace. Lift up your eyes and seek His face. Life with its way b4 us lies. Christ is the path and Christ is the Price.
Category: Encouraging SMS
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Search 4 truth and you shall find beauty, search 4 beauty and you shall find love, search for love and you shall find God, search for God and you shall have them all!
Category: Encouraging SMS
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When earthly help s no avail, there s 1 fren who wil never fail. Just lift ur eyes, d answer s there. For nobody knows d power of prayer. Have a worry free day..

chad jande ne sooli ashiq aashqi nibhan layee…. tu ik wari han tan kar de…. Mar ke vi vapis aa jangey, ik tera pyaar paun layee!!!
Category: Flirt sms
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Heeerai di pehchan jahwaari nu hundi ai, paaki kanak di khushi ik kishan nu hi hundi a, sohni cheej nu jehra sohni na kahve, ohnu aandro aandri jallaan vi jaroor hundi ai, hun ehdi khubsurti bare main dass kee kahan, menu tan ehdan jaape jidhan Hazeena ambran di eh koi pari hundi ai…
Category: Flirt sms
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asi tenu pyaar kita eh sade pyaar di had si asi tenu chaheya eh tere deedaar di had si Mar gaye tavi khuliyan rahiyan akhan eh kuch hoor nahi tere intzaar di had si
Category: Flirt sms
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Je tu cheez hoven tera mull pawan ! Tere badle main takrhi ch tull janwa! Mainu soch ke je tu has pawen tan main zindgi ch rona bhull janwa
Category: Flirt sms
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Baah fadke rok lende,je chalda koi zor hunda
assi tere piche kyoN rulde, je tere jeha koi hor hunda

Mehek ishq di ghat nahi hundi.. ehde naal zindagi khatam nahi hundi saath hove je zindagi dostan da te zindagi zanat to ghat nahi hundi!!!
Category: Friendship SMS
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Akhan di benuri changi nahin hundi,
Dostan ton duri changi nahin hundi,
Kade kade milya vi kar yaara,
Har vele SMS naal gal puri nahin hundi.
Category: Friendship SMS
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Teri dosti da main satkar kitta, teri har nazar nu main pyar kitta, kasam rabb di na bhula devin es dosti nu, main apne to vi jyada is rishte te aitbaar kitta..
Category: Friendship SMS
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Pyaar sab ne rabb nu vakh-vakh ditta, kise nu lakh te kise nu kakh ditta. Sahnu tuhade jeha yaar ditta, lakh ton v sava-lakh ditta.
Category: Friendship SMS
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Friendship is about. bringing out the positive when everything seems negative…being accepted for who you are…being able to pick up right where you left off…sharing, talking, and laughing…Friendship is about us, and for that I'm grateful. And I hope you have the best birthday ever, friend!

jado saade vangu tere dil te lagu gi, pher din saade naal guzare yaad aunge,
gedi maardi jado diggi kise bhape de ENTICER to pher yaaran
de BULLET yaad aunge.
Category: Funny SMS
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Fer ki hoyeya je tu hatha te mehndi la layi
Hun assi vi Sehra sajavange,
saanu pata si ki tu saadi kismat ch nahi,
hun teri choti bhen fasavange!!!
Category: Funny SMS
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Teri gali whicho langaa ge jaan-jaan ke,
saanu pata ae ki tu Thane report likhvayi hoyi ae,
jaa ke puch layi tu Thanedaar nu,
assi ohdi vi kudi fasayi hoyi ae!!!
Category: Funny SMS
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Padna-likhna chad pare,
Nakal te rakh aas,
chak Rajai te So jaa bhagta,
Rabb karuga paas!!!
Category: Funny SMS
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Kudiyon wich koi Sassi Labda, Koi Labda Heer,
Assi ta yaaro Sahiba Labni, te kutne ohde Veer!!
Category: Funny SMS


Getting used to using your keyboard exclusively and leaving your mouse behind will make you much more efficient at performing any task on any Windows system. I use the following keyboard shortcuts every day:

Windows key + R = Run menu

This is usually followed by:
cmd = Command Prompt
iexplore + "web address" = Internet Explorer
compmgmt.msc = Computer Management
dhcpmgmt.msc = DHCP Management
dnsmgmt.msc = DNS Management
services.msc = Services
eventvwr = Event Viewer
dsa.msc = Active Directory Users and Computers
dssite.msc = Active Directory Sites and Services
Windows key + E = Explorer

ALT + Tab = Switch between windows

ALT, Space, X = Maximize window

CTRL + Shift + Esc = Task Manager

Windows key + Break = System properties

Windows key + F = Search

Windows key + D = Hide/Display all windows

CTRL + C = copy

CTRL + X = cut

CTRL + V = paste

Also don't forget about the "Right-click" key next to the right Windows key on your keyboard. Using the arrows and that key can get just about anything done once you've opened up any program.

Keyboard Shortcuts

[Alt] and [Esc] Switch between running applications

[Alt] and letter Select menu item by underlined letter

[Ctrl] and [Esc] Open Program Menu

[Ctrl] and [F4] Close active document or group windows (does not work with some applications)

[Alt] and [F4] Quit active application or close current window

[Alt] and [-] Open Control menu for active document

Ctrl] Lft., Rt. arrow Move cursor forward or back one word

Ctrl] Up, Down arrow Move cursor forward or back one paragraph

[F1] Open Help for active application

Windows+M Minimize all open windows

Shift+Windows+M Undo minimize all open windows

Windows+F1 Open Windows Help

Windows+Tab Cycle through the Taskbar buttons

Windows+Break Open the System Properties dialog box

acessability shortcuts

Right SHIFT for eight seconds…….. Switch FilterKeys on and off.

Left ALT +left SHIFT +PRINT SCREEN……. Switch High Contrast on and off.

Left ALT +left SHIFT +NUM LOCK……. Switch MouseKeys on and off.

SHIFT……. five times Switch StickyKeys on and off.

NUM LOCK…… for five seconds Switch ToggleKeys on and off.

explorer shortcuts

END……. Display the bottom of the active window.

HOME……. Display the top of the active window.

NUM LOCK+ASTERISK……. on numeric keypad (*) Display all subfolders under the selected folder.

NUM LOCK+PLUS SIGN……. on numeric keypad (+) Display the contents of the selected folder.

NUM LOCK+MINUS SIGN……. on numeric keypad (-) Collapse the selected folder.

LEFT ARROW…… Collapse current selection if it's expanded, or select parent folder.

RIGHT ARROW……. Display current selection if it's collapsed, or select first subfolder.

Type the following commands in your Run Box (Windows Key + R) or Start Run

devmgmt.msc = Device Manager
msinfo32 = System Information
cleanmgr = Disk Cleanup
ntbackup = Backup or Restore Wizard (Windows Backup Utility)
mmc = Microsoft Management Console
excel = Microsoft Excel (If Installed)
msaccess = Microsoft Access (If Installed)
powerpnt = Microsoft PowerPoint (If Installed)
winword = Microsoft Word (If Installed)
frontpg = Microsoft FrontPage (If Installed)
notepad = Notepad
wordpad = WordPad
calc = Calculator
msmsgs = Windows Messenger
mspaint = Microsoft Paint
wmplayer = Windows Media Player
rstrui = System Restore
netscp6 = Netscape 6.x
netscp = Netscape 7.x
netscape = Netscape 4.x
waol = America Online
control = Opens the Control Panel
control printers = Opens the Printers Dialog


type in u're adress "google", then press [Right CTRL] and [Enter]
add www. and .com to word and go to it

For Windows XP:

Copy. CTRL+C
Paste. CTRL+V
Undo. CTRL+Z
Delete. DELETE
Delete selected item permanently without placing the item in the Recycle Bin. SHIFT+DELETE
Copy selected item. CTRL while dragging an item
Create shortcut to selected item. CTRL+SHIFT while dragging an item
Rename selected item. F2
Move the insertion point to the beginning of the next word. CTRL+RIGHT ARROW
Move the insertion point to the beginning of the previous word. CTRL+LEFT ARROW
Move the insertion point to the beginning of the next paragraph. CTRL+DOWN ARROW
Move the insertion point to the beginning of the previous paragraph. CTRL+UP ARROW
Highlight a block of text. CTRL+SHIFT with any of the arrow keys
Select more than one item in a window or on the desktop, or select text within a document. SHIFT with any of the arrow keys
Select all. CTRL+A
Search for a file or folder. F3
View properties for the selected item. ALT+ENTER
Close the active item, or quit the active program. ALT+F4
Opens the shortcut menu for the active window. ALT+SPACEBAR
Close the active document in programs that allow you to have multiple documents open simultaneously. CTRL+F4
Switch between open items. ALT+TAB
Cycle through items in the order they were opened. ALT+ESC
Cycle through screen elements in a window or on the desktop. F6
Display the Address bar list in My Computer or Windows Explorer. F4
Display the shortcut menu for the selected item. SHIFT+F10
Display the System menu for the active window. ALT+SPACEBAR
Display the Start menu. CTRL+ESC
Display the corresponding menu. ALT+Underlined letter in a menu name
Carry out the corresponding command. Underlined letter in a command name on an open menu
Activate the menu bar in the active program. F10
Open the next menu to the right, or open a submenu. RIGHT ARROW
Open the next menu to the left, or close a submenu. LEFT ARROW
Refresh the active window. F5
View the folder one level up in My Computer or Windows Explorer. BACKSPACE
Cancel the current task. ESC
SHIFT when you insert a CD into the CD-ROM drive Prevent the CD from automatically playing.

Use these keyboard shortcuts for dialog boxes:

To Press
Move forward through tabs. CTRL+TAB
Move backward through tabs. CTRL+SHIFT+TAB
Move forward through options. TAB
Move backward through options. SHIFT+TAB
Carry out the corresponding command or select the corresponding option. ALT+Underlined letter
Carry out the command for the active option or button. ENTER
Select or clear the check box if the active option is a check box. SPACEBAR
Select a button if the active option is a group of option buttons. Arrow keys
Display Help. F1
Display the items in the active list. F4
Open a folder one level up if a folder is selected in the Save As or Open dialog box. BACKSPACE

If you have a Microsoft Natural Keyboard, or any other compatible keyboard that includes the Windows logo key and the Application key , you can use these keyboard shortcuts:

Display or hide the Start menu. WIN Key
Display the System Properties dialog box. WIN Key+BREAK
Show the desktop. WIN Key+D
Minimize all windows. WIN Key+M
Restores minimized windows. WIN Key+Shift+M
Open My Computer. WIN Key+E
Search for a file or folder. WIN Key+F
Search for computers. CTRL+WIN Key+F
Display Windows Help. WIN Key+F1
Lock your computer if you are connected to a network domain, or switch users if you are not connected to a network domain. WIN Key+ L
Open the Run dialog box. WIN Key+R
Open Utility Manager. WIN Key+U

accessibility keyboard shortcuts:

Switch FilterKeys on and off. Right SHIFT for eight seconds
Switch High Contrast on and off. Left ALT+left SHIFT+PRINT SCREEN
Switch MouseKeys on and off. Left ALT +left SHIFT +NUM LOCK
Switch StickyKeys on and off. SHIFT five times
Switch ToggleKeys on and off. NUM LOCK for five seconds
Open Utility Manager. WIN Key+U

shortcuts you can use with Windows Explorer:

Display the bottom of the active window. END
Display the top of the active window. HOME
Display all subfolders under the selected folder. NUM LOCK+ASTERISK on numeric keypad (*)
Display the contents of the selected folder. NUM LOCK+PLUS SIGN on numeric keypad (+)
Collapse the selected folder. NUM LOCK+MINUS SIGN on numeric keypad (-)
Collapse current selection if it's expanded, or select parent folder. LEFT ARROW
Display current selection if it's collapsed, or select first subfolder. RIGHT ARROW


Beep Code Manual, Better Than Gold Techies, American Megatrends Int. & Phoenix

(I'm IT, I use these codes to trouble shoot hardware issues at my job. Enjoy) cold.gif

BIOS Beep Codes

When a computer is first turned on, or rebooted, its BIOS performs a power-on self test (POST) to test the system's hardware, checking to make sure that all of the system's hardware components are working properly. Under normal circumstances, the POST will display an error message; however, if the BIOS detects an error before it can access the video card, or if there is a problem with the video card, it will produce a series of beeps, and the pattern of the beeps indicates what kind of problem the BIOS has detected.
Because there are many brands of BIOS, there are no standard beep codes for every BIOS.

The two most-used brands are AMI (American Megatrends International) and Phoenix.

Below are listed the beep codes for AMI systems, and here are the beep codes for Phoenix systems.

AMI Beep Codes

Beep Code Meaning
1 beep DRAM refresh failure. There is a problem in the system memory or the motherboard.
2 beeps Memory parity error. The parity circuit is not working properly.
3 beeps Base 64K RAM failure. There is a problem with the first 64K of system memory.
4 beeps System timer not operational. There is problem with the timer(s) that control functions on the motherboard.
5 beeps Processor failure. The system CPU has failed.
6 beeps Gate A20/keyboard controller failure. The keyboard IC controller has failed, preventing gate A20 from switching the processor to protect mode.
7 beeps Virtual mode exception error.
8 beeps Video memory error. The BIOS cannot write to the frame buffer memory on the video card.
9 beeps ROM checksum error. The BIOS ROM chip on the motherboard is likely faulty.
10 beeps CMOS checksum error. Something on the motherboard is causing an error when trying to interact with the CMOS.
11 beeps Bad cache memory. An error in the level 2 cache memory.
1 long beep, 2 short Failure in the video system.
1 long beep, 3 short A failure has been detected in memory above 64K.
1 long beep, 8 short Display test failure.
Continuous beeping A problem with the memory or video.
BIOS Beep Codes

Phoenix Beep Codes

Phoenix uses sequences of beeps to indicate problems. The "-" between each number below indicates a pause between each beep sequence. For example, 1-2-3 indicates one beep, followed by a pause and two beeps, followed by a pause and three beeps. Phoenix version before 4.x use 3-beep codes, while Phoenix versions starting with 4.x use 4-beep codes. Click here for AMI BIOS beep codes.
4-Beep Codes
Beep Code Meaning
1-1-1-3 Faulty CPU/motherboard. Verify real mode.
1-1-2-1 Faulty CPU/motherboard.
1-1-2-3 Faulty motherboard or one of its components.
1-1-3-1 Faulty motherboard or one of its components. Initialize chipset registers with initial POST values.
1-1-3-2 Faulty motherboard or one of its components.
1-1-3-3 Faulty motherboard or one of its components. Initialize CPU registers.
1-1-3-4 Failure in the first 64K of memory.
1-1-4-1 Level 2 cache error.
1-1-4-3 I/O port error.
1-2-1-1 Power management error.
1-2-1-3 Faulty motherboard or one of its components.
1-2-2-1 Keyboard controller failure.
1-2-2-3 BIOS ROM error.
1-2-3-1 System timer error.
1-2-3-3 DMA error.
1-2-4-1 IRQ controller error.
1-3-1-1 DRAM refresh error.
1-3-1-3 A20 gate failure.
1-3-2-1 Faulty motherboard or one of its components.
1-3-3-1 Extended memory error.
1-3-4-3 Error in first 1MB of system memory.
1-4-2-4 CPU error.
2-1-4-1 BIOS ROM shadow error.
1-4-3-3 Level 2 cache error.
2-1-1-1 Faulty motherboard or one of its components.
2-1-2-1 IRQ failure.
2-1-2-3 BIOS ROM error.
2-1-3-2 I/O port failure.
2-1-3-3 Video system failure.
2-1-2-1 IRQ failure.
2-1-2-3 BIOS ROM error.
2-1-2-4 I/O port failure.
2-2-1-1 Video card failure.
2-2-2-3 Keyboard controller failure.
2-2-3-1 IRQ error.
2-2-4-1 Error in first 1MB of system memory.
2-3-3-3 Extended memory failure.
2-3-2-1 Faulty motherboard or one of its components.
2-3-3-1 Level 2 cache error.
2-3-4-3 Motherboard or video card failure.
2-4-1-1 Motherboard or video card failure.
2-4-1-3 Faulty motherboard or one of its components.
2-4-2-1 RTC error.
2-4-2-3 Keyboard controller error.
2-4-4-1 IRQ error.
3-1-2-3 I/O port error.
3-1-3-3 Faulty motherboard or one of its components.
3-2-1-2 Floppy drive or hard drive failure.
3-2-1-3 Faulty motherboard or one of its components.
3-2-2-1 Keyboard controller error.
3-2-4-1 Faulty motherboard or one of its components.
3-2-4-3 IRQ error.
3-3-1-1 RTC error.
3-3-1-3 Key lock error.
3-3-3-3 Faulty motherboard or one of its components.
3-4-4-4 Faulty motherboard or one of its components.
4-1-1-1 Floppy drive or hard drive failure.
4-2-2-1 IRQ failure.
4-2-4-1 Faulty motherboard or one of its components.
4-2-4-3 Keyboard controller error.
4-3-4-3 Faulty motherboard or one of its components.
4-3-3-4 IRQ failure.
4-3-4-2 Floppy drive or hard drive failure.
3-Beep Codes
Beep Code Meaning
1-1-2 Faulty CPU/motherboard.
1-1-3 Faulty motherboard/CMOS read-write failure.
1-1-4 Faulty BIOS/BIOS ROM checksum error.
1-2-1 System timer not operational. There is a problem with the timer(s) that control functions on the motherboard.
1-2-3 Faulty motherboard/DMA failure.
1-3-1 Memory refresh failure.
1-3-4 Failure in the first 64K of memory.
1-4-1 Address line failure.
1-4-2 Parity RAM failure.
1-4-3 Timer failure.
1-4-4 NMI port failure.
2-_-_ Any combination of beeps after 2 indicates a failure in the first 64K of memory.
3-1-1 Master DMA failure.
3-1-2 Slave DMA failure.
3-1-4 Interrupt controller failure.
3-2-4 Keyboard controller failure.
3-3-2 CMOS error.
3-3-4 Video card failure.
3-4-1 Video card failure.
4-2-1 Timer failure.
4-2-2 CMOS shutdown failure.
4-2-3 Gate A20 failure.
4-2-4 Unexpected interrupt in protected mode.
4-3-1 RAM test failure.
4-3-3 Timer failure.
4-3-4 Time of day clock failure.
4-4-1 Serial port failure.
4-4-2 Parallel port failure.
4-4-3 Math coprocessor.

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